1 Anastasia Loukaitou-Sideris, Retrofit of Urban Corridors: Land Use Policies and Design Guidelines for Transit Friendly Environment, Berkeley: UCTC No. 180 (1993). This echoed a 1992 nationwide survey finding that only 17% of respondents considered buses to be the safest mode of transportation. Ball and Mierzeiewski, Transit Use Factors, Center for Transportation Research, University of Florida (1992).
2 Mary Vogel and James Pettinari, œPersonal Safety and Transit: Paths, Environments, Stops, and Stations, Center for Transportation Studies (April 2002), Document ; Anastasia Loukaitou-Sideris, œHot Spots of Bus Stop Crime: The Importance of Environmental Attributes, Journal of the American Planning Association (1999).
7 Shelters are approximately five feet deep by ten feet wide. The city requires at least a two-foot setback from the road to ensure that buses and trucks do not hit the shelter roof. This means that sidewalks should be at least five feet deep to allow for shelters.
8 SEPTA ridership data for FY 2005 shows bus ridership totaling 558,000 daily unlinked trips and trolley ridership at 62,200 daily unlinked trips. An unlinked trip is a single ride. If a rider takes the trolley and then transfers to another trolley or bus, that counts as two unlinked trips.
9 King County Metro in Seattle, Washington, provides free monthly passes to hundreds of individuals, each of whom keeps his or her neighborhood stop clean and empties the trash regularly. œToolkit for the Assessment of Bus Stop Accessibility and Safety, Easter Seals Project Action, Document downloaded on August 4, 2006.
10 Tri-Met, the regional transit provider in Portland, Oregon, compensates its 800 Adopt-a-Stop participants with ten bus tickets each per month. Under the program, litter at these stops has been reduced by 80%. Joel Volinski and Lisa E. Tucker, œSafer Stops for Vulnerable Customers, State of Florida Department of Transportation (2003).
12 From undisturbed land, 8 inches of the 45 inches of rain that Philadelphia normally gets in a year runs off, while 12 inches is infiltrated to baseflow and 25 inches are evapotranspired. With paved land, 43 inches of the rain become runoff and 2 inches are evaporated. œPennsylvania Stormwater Best Management Practices Manual, final draft (2006).
13 Grant Hoag, œDeveloping Equitable Stormwater Fees: What Do Customers Perceive as ˜Fair'? Setting Rates That Reflect the Cost of Providing Service, Stormwater Magazine (January/February 2004), Document.
15 Neighborhood Transformation Initiative: A Vision Becomes a Reality, Progress Report 2004, Document.
16 Estimates for 1976 are derived from the Fairmount Park Commission's annual reports. The 2004 study was an unreleased analysis by a consultant hired by the city of Philadelphia with funding from the U.S. Forest Service Northeast Research Station. Technology advances and differing data collection methods make it impossible to know with statistical certainty whether we have actually lost half of our trees in the past 20 years.
17 Milwaukee has 200,000 street trees spread over 1,400 street miles. Data provided by Patrice Carroll, project director of Pennsylvania's TreeVitalize Program. Boston and other cities without tree inventories were not included in the chart.
18 Los Angeles launched a program to add one million trees. Hyman and Merl, œL.A. to Be Remade in the Shade, Los Angeles Times (October 1, 2006); Blaine Harden, Tree-Planting Drive Seeks to Bring a New Urban Cool, Lower Energy Costs Touted as Benefit, Washington Post (September 4, 2006), Document.
20 A recent Wharton research study found that a street tree within 50 feet of a house raises that house's value up to 9%. Customer preference studies have also shown that visitors and local customers are likely to spend 12% more in stores on tree-lined streets that at those on streets without trees.Wachter and Gillen, œPublic Investment Strategies: How They Matter for Neighborhoods in Philadelphia” Identification and Analysis, The Wharton School, University of Pennsylvania (April 2006).
21 John E. Cutler, Reclaiming Trees, Urban Land (November/December 2005), Document.
23 Established in 1993, Tree Tenders is a Pennsylvania Horticultural Society program that offers training in how to plant and care for trees in an urban environment. See Document.
24 Neighborhood Transformation Initiative General Operating Funds, Document.
26 The Fairmount Park Commission also receives private donations of $500 per park tree through its Gifts for All Seasons, as well as other grant funding. These funds permit FPC to plant 100 additional trees per year.
27 The following are the Philadelphia real-estate transfer fees from 2004 to 2006: FY 2006 = $234,498,704 FY 2005 = $192,266,000 FY 2004 = $141,345,440.92 The 2004 number is from the Supplement to the Comprehensive Annual Financial Report. The FY 2005 figure is from the FY 2007 Five-Year Financial Plan, and the FY 2006 unaudited number is from a Department of Revenue comparative.
28 Smoke Out: Three Measures for Cleaning up Diesel Air Pollution in New York City, Natural Resources Defense Council (2005), Document.
29 Shapiro and Stout, œChildhood Asthma in the United States: Urban Issues, Pediatric Pulmonology (December 2001, 47“55); Lang and Polansky, Patterns of Asthma Mortality in Philadelphia from 1969 to 1991, New England Journal of Medicine (December 8, 1994, 1542“46).
31 2006 Asthma Rankings by the Asthma and Allergy Foundation of America, Document.
32 In 1995, diesel vehicles emitted more than half of the particulate pollution breathed by pedestrians as they strolled along Madison Avenue, even though diesel buses and trucks were a small fraction of New York City traffic. 52.8% of the particulate matter measured on Madison Avenue in the mid- 1990's was attributable to diesels. NYS DEC, New York State Implementation Plan: Inhalable Particulate (PM10) (September 1995, 11).
33 California Air Resources Board Study (January 2001), cited in œPhiladelphia Diesel Difference, Health Information, Document.
34 PhillyHealthInfo.org Spotlight on Asthma, Document, downloaded on October 11, 2006.
35 Rob McConnell, Kiros Berhane, Ling Yao, Michael Jerrett, Fred Lurmann, Frank Gilliland, Nino Kunzli, Jim Gauderman, Ed Avol, Duncan Thomas, and John Peters, Traffic, Susceptibility and Childhood Asthma, Environmental Health Perspectives (May 2006).
36 œPhiladelphia Particulate Matter Analysis, prepared by U.S. EPA Region III. Presented to the Philadelphia Diesel Difference Working Group on August 24, 2004, Document.
38 Neighborhood Transformation Initiative: A Vision Becomes a Reality, Progress Report 2004, Document.
40 The commission is made up of ten commissioners who are volunteer citizens and serve five-year terms and six commissioners who are ex-officio members and includes designees of the mayor; the president of City Council; the commissioners of the city's Departments of Public Property, Recreation, and Water; the chief engineer of the Water Department; and the surveyor of the Department of Streets. The Board of Judges from the city's Court of Common Pleas selects the citizen volunteers.
41 For over 20 years, advocates and leaders alike have demanded a modern leadership structure for the Fairmount Park Commission. In 1983 the Fairmount Park Commission adopted a master plan recommending that specific criteria be adopted to guide the process of selecting commissioners, including relevant expertise and willingness to advocate for our parks. Some 20 years later, an intensive study of the commission resulted in a report entitled A Bridge to the Future: Fairmount Park Strategic Plan. The report found that Fairmount Park currently lacks the organizational structure, resources, incentives, and philosophical approach to reach its full revenue-generating potential, creating a more financially sustainable operations¦ [W]ith no published criteria or appointment process for the Commissioners, stakeholders perceive a lack of representation and accountability¦ roles and responsibilities are not well defined between the Commission, the Mayor, and the Managing Director's Office, which reduces accountability and ownership.
42 All rents, licenses, charges and fees, all fines, proceeds of all sales, except of lands purchased, and profits of whatsoever kind, to be collected, received or howsoever realized, shall be paid into the City Treasury as a fund to be exclusively appropriated by Councils for park purposes, under the direction of said Commission: Provided, that monies or properties given or bequeathed to the Park Commissioners upon specified trusts shall be received and receded by their Treasurer, and held and applied in accordance with the trust specified. Section 16485 of Title 53 of Purden's Pennsylvania Statutes, annotated.
45 Review of Recycling Program, Office of the Controller (May 2005), Document.
48 City of Philadelphia, Mayor's Report on City Services, July 1, 2004“June 30, 2005, Fiscal Year 2005, Document. The city disposed of 785,125 tons of trash in FY 2005 and recycled 41,023 tons, for a recycling rate of 5.2%.
52 Pennsylvania Recycling Markets Center press release (July 2005), Document.
53 U.S. EPA, Municipal Solid Waste, FAQ about Recycling and Waste Management, Document; PA DEP brochure, œRecycling Means Economic and Environmental Benefits for Pennsylvania.
56 Clean Energy: Today's Reality, Tomorrow's Opportunity, The Reinvestment Fund (2006), Document.
58 Energy Security and Emergency Preparedness: How Clean Energy Can Deliver More Reliable Power for Critical Infrastructure and Emergency Response Missions. An Overview for Federal, State, and Local Officials, Clean Energy Group (October 2005), Document.
59 Pounds of pollutants derived from the U.S. EPA Power Profiler Page, assuming 5% of Philadelphia's total annual electricity use is 10,684,491 kWh, Document.
61 The city of Philadelphia's energy costs from General Fund accounts (FY 2005) are $28.9 million, based upon figures provided by Kent R. Miller, executive director of the Philadelphia Municipal Energy Office. The most recently reported energy costs for the School District of Philadelphia are $30 million, based on the School District of Philadelphia's Energy Office website, Document.
62 Toyota built a LEED-certified building in order to save on energy costs but found that the new building” which offered natural lighting, electricity-generating rooftop solar panels, and water recycling”also caused employee absenteeism to fall 14% and productivity to increase. Case studies from the U.S. Green Building Council show increases in employee productivity of as much as 16%. Roger Vincent, The Greening of Work, Los Angeles Times (August 27, 2006).
65 The system will save $5,000 per year, resulting in a 15-year payback, and will offer a reduction in fossil-fuel use equivalent to 42,000 barrels of oil and 37,000 cubic feet of natural gas, Document.
66 A report called A National Review of Green Schools: Costs, Benefits, and Implications for Massachusetts analyzed 30 green school buildings across the nation and found that green schools cost only 1.5 to 2.5% more than conventional buildings to construct and saved ten times that much. A National Review of Green Schools: Costs, Benefits, and Implications for Massachusetts, a Report for the Massachusetts Technology Collaborative (December 2005).
67 2006 Asthma Rankings by the Asthma and Allergy Foundation of America, Document.